HTML fundamentals and cheatsheet.

HTML fundamentals and cheatsheet.

Pramit Marattha
ยทJun 3, 2021ยท

11 min read

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Helloooo !! Everyone !!! . In this tutorial, you will learn about the entire basics of HyperText Markup Language ( HTML) from complete scratch.

HTML basics

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.

<!DOCTYPE html>
  • doctype declaration defines that this document is HTML
  • is the root element of an HTML page
  • element that contains meta info about the HTML page
  • element that defines the title of the html page
  • element that defines the documents body
  • elements defines large headings
  • elements that defines a paragraph

HTML elements

html elements is defined by < start tag > some content and < /end tag >

<tagname>some content </tagname>

All HTML documents must start with a document type declaration: <!DOCTYPE html>.

The HTML document itself begins with < html > and ends with < /html >.

The visible part of the HTML document is between < body > and < /body >.

Nested html elements

HTML elements can be nested


<h1>My First Heading</h1>
<p>My first paragraph.</p>


HTML attributes

  • All HTML elements can have attributes

  • Attributes provide additional information about elements

  • Attributes are always specified in the start tag

  • Attributes usually come in name/value pairs like: name="value"

<a href="">Google</a>

src attribute

<img src="this.jpg">

Absolute URL path


Relative URL path


Height and Width Attributes

<img src="this.jpg" width="500" height="600">

alt attribute

alt attribute for the < img > tag specifies an alternate text for an image,

<img src="google.jpg" alt="This is google logo">


<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Heading 2</h2>
<h3>Heading 3</h3>
<h4>Heading 4</h4>
<h5>Heading 5</h5>
<h6>Heading 6</h6>


A paragraph always starts on a new line, and is usually a block of text.

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is another paragraph.</p>

Style attributes

<tagname style="property:value;">

Formatting elements

<b> - Bold text
<strong> - Important text
<i> - Italic text
<em> - Emphasized text
<mark> - Marked text
<small> - Smaller text
<del> - Deleted text
<ins> - Inserted text
<sub> - Subscript text
<sup> - Superscript text

Blockquotes and citation elements

<blockquote cite="">
this is google
 <q> - for short quotation

<abbr> - for abbreviation

<address> -  for contact information

<cite> -  for work title

<bdo> -  for bi-directional override

<bdo dir="rtl">This text will be written from right to left</bdo>

HTML comments

<!-- this is a comment -->

HTML color Names

(supports 140 color names)

Pink Color

Pink             #FFC0CB               
LightPink         #FFB6C1               
HotPink         #FF69B4               
DeepPink         #FF1493               
PaleVioletRed     #DB7093               
MediumVioletRed #C71585

Purple Color

Lavender         #E6E6FA               
Thistle         #D8BFD8               
Plum             #DDA0DD               
Orchid             #DA70D6               
Violet             #EE82EE               
Fuchsia         #FF00FF               
Magenta         #FF00FF               
MediumOrchid     #BA55D3               
DarkOrchid         #9932CC               
DarkViolet         #9400D3               
BlueViolet         #8A2BE2               
DarkMagenta     #8B008B               
Purple             #800080               
MediumPurple     #9370DB               
MediumSlateBlue #7B68EE               
SlateBlue         #6A5ACD               
DarkSlateBlue     #483D8B               
RebeccaPurple     #663399               
Indigo          #4B0082

Red Color

LightSalmon     #FFA07A               
Salmon             #FA8072               
DarkSalmon         #E9967A               
LightCoral         #F08080               
IndianRed          #CD5C5C               
Crimson         #DC143C               
Red             #FF0000               
FireBrick         #B22222               
DarkRed         #8B0000

Orange Color

Orange             #FFA500               
DarkOrange      #FF8C00               
Coral           #FF7F50               
Tomato          #FF6347               
OrangeRed       #FF4500

Yellow Color

Gold             #FFD700               
Yellow          #FFFF00               
LightYellow     #FFFFE0               
LemonChiffon     #FFFACD               
PapayaWhip      #FFEFD5               
Moccasin         #FFE4B5               
PeachPuff         #FFDAB9               
PaleGoldenRod     #EEE8AA               
Khaki             #F0E68C               
DarkKhaki       #BDB76B

Green Color

GreenYellow     #ADFF2F               
Chartreuse         #7FFF00               
LawnGreen       #7CFC00               
Lime             #00FF00               
LimeGreen         #32CD32               
PaleGreen       #98FB98               
LightGreen         #90EE90               
SpringGreen     #00FF7F               
MediumSeaGreen     #3CB371               
SeaGreen         #2E8B57               
ForestGreen     #228B22               
Green             #008000               
DarkGreen         #006400               
YellowGreen     #9ACD32               
OliveDrab       #6B8E23               
DarkOliveGreen     #556B2F               
DarkSeaGreen     #8FBC8F               
LightSeaGreen     #20B2AA               
DarkCyan         #008B8B               
Teal             #008080

Cyan Color

Aqua             #00FFFF               
Cyan             #00FFFF               
LightCyan         #E0FFFF               
PaleTurquoise     #AFEEEE               
Aquamarine         #7FFFD4               
Turquoise         #40E0D0               
MediumTurquoise #48D1CC               
DarkTurquoise     #00CED1

Blue Color

CadetBlue       #5F9EA0               
SteelBlue         #4682B4               
LightSteelBlue     #B0C4DE               
LightBlue         #ADD8E6               
PowderBlue         #B0E0E6               
LightSkyBlue     #87CEFA               
SkyBlue         #87CEEB               
CornflowerBlue     #6495ED               
DeepSkyBlue     #00BFFF               
DodgerBlue         #1E90FF               
RoyalBlue         #4169E1               
Blue             #0000FF               
MediumBlue         #0000CD               
DarkBlue         #00008B               
Navy             #000080               
MidnightBlue     #191970

Brown Color

Cornsilk         #FFF8DC               
BlanchedAlmond     #FFEBCD               
Bisque             #FFE4C4               
NavajoWhite     #FFDEAD               
Wheat             #F5DEB3               
BurlyWood         #DEB887               
Tan             #D2B48C               
RosyBrown         #BC8F8F               
SandyBrown      #F4A460               
GoldenRod         #DAA520               
DarkGoldenRod     #B8860B               
Peru            #CD853F               
Chocolate         #D2691E               
Olive             #808000               
SaddleBrown     #8B4513               
Sienna             #A0522D               
Brown             #A52A2A               
Maroon             #800000

White Color

White             #FFFFFF               
Snow             #FFFAFA               
HoneyDew         #F0FFF0               
MintCream         #F5FFFA               
Azure             #F0FFFF               
AliceBlue         #F0F8FF               
GhostWhite         #F8F8FF               
WhiteSmoke         #F5F5F5               
SeaShell         #FFF5EE               
Beige             #F5F5DC               
OldLace         #FDF5E6               
FloralWhite     #FFFAF0               
Ivory             #FFFFF0               
AntiqueWhite     #FAEBD7               
Linen             #FAF0E6               
LavenderBlush     #FFF0F5               
MistyRose         #FFE4E1

Grey Color

Gainsboro       #DCDCDC               
LightGray         #D3D3D3               
Silver             #C0C0C0               
DarkGray         #A9A9A9               
DimGray         #696969               
Gray             #808080               
LightSlateGray     #778899               
SlateGray         #708090               
DarkSlateGray     #2F4F4F               
Black             #000000

CSS in html

Using CSS

  • CSS can be added to HTML documents in 3 ways:
Inline - by using the style attribute inside HTML elements
Internal - by using a <style> element in the <head> section
External - by using a <link> element to link to an external CSS file
<a href="url" target="_blank">link text</a>

<a href="url" target="_blank"><img src="./images/yolo.png" alt="yolo"/></a>

<a href="">Click to Mail</a>
  • Use the < a > element to define a link
  • Use the href attribute to define the link address
  • Use the target attribute to define where to open the linked document
  • Use the < img > element (inside < a >) to use an image as a link
  • Use the mailto: scheme inside the href attribute to create a link that opens the user's email client.

_self - Default. Opens the document in the same window/tab as it was clicked
_blank - Opens the document in a new window or tab
_parent - Opens the document in the parent frame
_top - Opens the document in the full body of the window

HTML image

<img src="url" alt="alternatetext">
  • Use the HTML < img > element to define an image
  • Use the HTML src attribute to define the URL of the image
  • Use the HTML alt attribute to define an alternate text for an image, if it cannot be displayed
  • Use the HTML width and height attributes or the CSS width and height properties to define the size of the image
  • Use the CSS float property to let the image float to the left or to the right

HTML image map

<img src="yolo.jpg" alt="yolo" usemap="#thismap">

<map name="thismap">
  <area shape="rect" coords="34,44,270,350" alt="box" href="box.htm">
  <area shape="rect" coords="290,172,333,250" alt="box" href="box.htm">
  <area shape="circle" coords="337,300,44" alt="round" href="round.htm">
  • Use the HTML < map > element to define an image map
  • Use the HTML < area > element to define the clickable areas in the image map
  • Use the HTML usemap attribute of the < img > element to point to an image map

Picture element

defines a container for multiple image resources

  <source srcset="yolo.png">
  <source srcset="thisyolo.jpg">
  <img src="dance.gif" alt="dance" style="width:auto;">

Html table

th= table headings

tr=table row

td=table data

<table style="width:100%">

HTML Lists

Ordered list


Unordered list


HTML block level elements

<div> hello there</div>

HTML class attribute

<div class="classname">This</div>

HTML id attribute

<div id="classname">This</div>

HTML iframe

An HTML iframe is used to display a web page within a web page.

<iframe src="url" title="description">

HTML javascript

  • embed javascript inside the HTML itself
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "Hello there!";


The HTML < head > element is a container for the following elements:

 <title>, <style>, <meta>, <link>, <script>, and <base>.

HTML semantics elements


HTML entities


HTML charset Attribute

To display an HTML page correctly, a web browser must know the character set used in the page.

This is specified in the < meta > tag:

<meta charset="UTF-8">

Keys summary

  • < !DOCTYPE > is mandatory

  • The xmlns attribute in < html > is mandatory

  • < html >, < head >, < title >, and < body > are mandatory

  • Elements must always be properly nested

  • Elements must always be closed

  • Elements must always be in lowercase

  • Attribute names must always be in lowercase

  • Attribute values must always be quoted

  • Attribute minimization is forbidden

HTML forms

HTML < form > element is a conatiner for different types of input elements

  • element is the most used form Elements
  • elements can be displayed in many ways depending upon the type Attributes


  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname"><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname">


Form submit

The form-handler is specified in the form's action attribute.

<form action="/submit.js">
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John"><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe"><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">

If the name attribute is omitted, the value of the input field will not be sent at all.

For example,

<form action="/action_page.php">
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" value="John"><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">

HTML form target attributes


<form action="/script.js" target="_blank">

Method attributes (post,get,put,delete)

<form action="/scripts.js" method="post">

HTML FORM elements Lists


Select elements

<label for="cars">Choose a car:</label>
<select id="cars" name="cars">
  <option value="volvo">Volvo</option>
  <option value="saab">Saab</option>
  <option value="fiat">Fiat</option>
  <option value="audi">Audi</option>

Use the size attribute to specify the number of visible values:

<label for="cars">Choose a car:</label>
<select id="cars" name="cars" size="3">
  <option value="volvo">Volvo</option>
  <option value="saab">Saab</option>
  <option value="fiat">Fiat</option>
  <option value="audi">Audi</option>

multiple attribute to select multiple

<label for="cars">Choose a car:</label>
<select id="cars" name="cars" size="4" multiple>
  <option value="volvo">Volvo</option>
  <option value="saab">Saab</option>
  <option value="fiat">Fiat</option>
  <option value="audi">Audi</option>

Textarea element

The rows attribute specifies the visible number of lines in a text area.

The cols attribute specifies the visible width of a text area.

<textarea name="message" rows="10" cols="30">
The cat was playing in the garden.

Button Elements

<button type="button" onclick="alert('Hello World!')">Click Me!</button>

The < fieldset > and < legend > Elements

The < fieldset > element is used to group related data in a form.

The < legend > element defines a caption for the < fieldset > element.

<form action="/scripts.js">
    <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
    <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John"><br>
    <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
    <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe"><br><br>
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">

Output Elements

<form action="/action_page.php"
  <input type="range" id="a" name="a" value="50">
  100 +
  <input type="number" id="b" name="b" value="50">
  <output name="x" for="a b"></output>
  <input type="submit">

HTML input Types

<input type="button">
<input type="checkbox">
<input type="color">
<input type="date">
<input type="datetime-local">
<input type="email">
<input type="file">
<input type="hidden">
<input type="image">
<input type="month">
<input type="number">
<input type="password">
<input type="radio">
<input type="range">
<input type="reset">
<input type="search">
<input type="submit">
<input type="tel">
<input type="text">
<input type="time">
<input type="url">
<input type="week">

Input Restrictions


HTML canvas

The < canvas > element is only a container for graphics. You must use JavaScript to actually draw the graphics.

<canvas id="myCanvas" width="200" height="100" style="border:1px solid #000000;">

HTML svg

The HTML < svg > element is a container for SVG graphics.

<svg width="400" height="180">
  <rect x="50" y="20" rx="20" ry="20" width="150" height="150"
  style="fill:red;stroke:black;stroke-width:5;opacity:0.5" />

Video Elements

The HTML < video > element is used to show a video on a web page.

<video width="320" height="240" controls>
  <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4">
  <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg">
Your browser does not support the video tag.

- controls
- autoplay
- muted

Audio Elements

<audio controls>
  <source src="horse.ogg" type="audio/ogg">
  <source src="horse.mp3" type="audio/mpeg">
Your browser does not support the audio element.
- controls
- autoplay
- muted


<iframe width="420" height="315"

HTML semantic tags


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