World Wide Web has greatly facilitated access to digitally stored data. Content on the World Wide Web, on the other hand, has only been machine-readable, not fully machine-understandable. Because most information on the World Wide Web is given in natural language, the available documents can only be comprehended entirely by humans. The Semantic Web is built on the content-oriented description of digital documents using defined vocabularies to give machine-readable semantics. As a result, the Web of Links is transformed into a Web of Semantic Web. The classic Web 1.0 experienced an angular shift into Web 2.0, concentrating on categorization, intellectual capacity, and collective wisdom. Only the combined strength of semantic web technologies and widespread user participation will be leading to Web 3.0.
The evolving semantic web cannot be grown and broadened to the degree required for a complete transformation of the current web without Web 2.0 technologies. On the other hand, without the addition of machine-understandable content descriptions based on semantic web technologies, current Web 2.0 technologies cannot be leveraged for automatic service composition as well. The ultimate global knowledge infrastructure cannot be fully automated; instead, it requires collective and widespread human participation based on open semantic platforms as well as standards.
Beginning of the Web 2.0 era.
Web 2.0 denotes a fundamental change in the advancement of the internet: Web 1.0, also known as the Web of business and Companies, has given way to Web 2.0, known as the Web of individuals and People. This shift has not resulted in the introduction of new technologies, but it has significantly altered the user's role and value. Tim O'Reilly and Dale Dougherty of O'Reilly Media coined the term Web 2.0 to describe new emerging web applications and trends. Web 2.0, according to O'Reilly, is comprised of the following concepts:
- Web as a platform: The web and all of its connected devices are regarded as a single global platform of reusable services and data on which to build using open standards.
- Collective wisdom: A Tradition of Involvement emerges from the establishment of open systems that support and enable collaborative content production based on the notion of "having faith rather than having control". The observation is that a large number of users provides a great amount of knowledge, but that same large number of users also prevents misuse of services and removes incorrect content. Wikipedia is an excellent example of harnessing people's collective intelligence. It is a free Internet-based encyclopedia that was founded in 2001 and operates under an open-source management model. Wikipedia's open-source production model exemplifies Web 2.0, a socially progressive environment in which the web of social software entangles users in both their physical and virtual workplaces. The Wikipedia community is founded on a set of standard principles. Neutrality is an important principle. Another factor is the belief that contributors are acting in a sincere and deliberate manner. Readers can correct perceived errors, and disagreements over facts and possible bias are resolved through contributor discussions.
- Open source and service operations: In the Web 2.0 era, the software is delivered as a service rather than a product. The core competency of the companies involved in the daily operation of their services, not the algorithms used. The dynamic nature of the services necessitates continual, cost-effective transformation through the use of an open source development style. Many of the services have been in the “continual beta” phase for many years, with new features being introduced on a regular basis. Successful Web 2.0 businesses/companies are experts and experienced at tracking user activity in real-time to determine which new features are being currently used, how they are being used, and how they should be adjusted and adapted accordingly.
- Fully data-driven: Databases are at the core of Web 2.0 processes, where the data itself is far more essential than the application or interface that utilizes it. The race to own certain classes of core data, such as location, identity, product identifying information, and namespaces, is on in the market. Moreover, a critical mass of data can be attained through user aggregation, and the gathered information is then turned into a system service.
- Beyond Personal Computers: Web 2.0 systems are distinguished by the fact that they are no longer restricted to the Desktop / PC platform. This is not new in terms of web applications, but Web 2.0 apps provide a more complete achievement of the web's full potential as a platform, embracing not only the world of interconnected PCs but also mobile phones and various portable / wearables gadgets as well as devices.
- lightweight programming models: The easy connecting, expansion and mixing of data using simple Application programming Interfaces enable the construction of new, loosely connected web services every single day, as the syndication of data, not the piling of its utilization, has been recognized as a driving force in the market. As a result, many Web 2.0 services innovate by putting together components in unique and productive ways.
Web 2.0 is certainly not a new technology in general. It's a brand-new approach to working with data and including people in the process.
The inception of “Semantic web.”
“The Semantic Web is not a distinct Web, but an extension of the web 1.0 and web 2.0, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better-enabling machines and people to work together,” Tim Berners-Lee, Jim Hendler, and Ora Lassila wrote in a Scientific American article in 2001. To accomplish so, we'll need data about data, often known as metadata, which can express meaning and be shared among computers. Machines can utilize metadata to consume and produce data on the web if it is stored in a standardized format. Service agents may use this data to explore, analyze, integrate, organize, and reorganize it in new and innovative ways to help us solve problems, plan events, or simply schedule our leisure time. Markup languages with a formalized syntax and semantics provide a defined notion for defining digital resources in the form of a schema, which are the key technology elements for the Semantic Web. Ontologies can be shared and distributed globally using semantic markup languages like Web Ontology Language.
Tim Berners Lee's Web layer cake is made up of these three levels of web annotations. It organizes a variety of new standards and concepts into a Semantic Web hierarchy. Unicode and Uniform Resource Identifier are the foundation standards for identifying resources in general on the lowest layer. On the second layer, we have XML(extensive markup language), which is utilized to specify the interchange format of underlying data models that are strictly syntactic and structural. On the third tier, the Resource Description Framework and its schema comprise the most fundamental and widely used triple-based Semantic Web representation language. Ontology vocabularies make up the next tier. The Semantic Web's next layer adds functionality: systems may draw conclusions and make judgments using logic and rules. However, the proof is required to depend on these conclusions, which is the sixth layer of the Semantic web stack. Finally, there is the issue of trust. The Semantic Web does not claim that every assertion found on the internet is correct. However, all assertions on the Internet are made in context, and each application must use this context to assess its credibility.
Machine learning, data mining, and text mining approaches minimize the manual labor of building and maintaining ontologies, while the layer of logic and rules can improve search algorithms. Ontologies can be developed, edited, evaluated, merged, and validated using a number of software tools. The Semantic Web can help with the massive problem of information overload.
Web 3.0: Hybrid of semantic web and Web 2.0
Web 3.0 is an extension of Web 2.0, which can be thought of as a service-oriented Web that encourages and enables user cooperation and communication. Although there is no consensus on the particular characteristics that define Web 3.0, many researchers agree that semantic technologies and customization techniques play a significant role in it. Web 3.0 can thus be considered as a semantic and personalized variant of Web 2.0 from this standpoint.
Web 3.0's objective is to bring together the concepts of Web 2.0 and the upcoming Semantic Web technologies in a multidisciplinary setting. The lightweight and community-based technologies of Web 2.0 must be employed to lower the enormous costs of constructing an entire Semantic Web so that every web user can contribute a piece of meaning to the growing Semantic Web. The desire to provide a platform on which others can build, use, and combine apps signifies the direction in which Semantic Web applications should be permitted to progress. The widespread adoption of Web 2.0 and its evolution can catalyze the development of semantic technologies. The Semantic Web is currently being held back by its complexity and a lack of a network effect from a large community. The required semantic tagging, extracting, classifying, and organizing effort is time-consuming, and there aren't many easy solutions that satisfy consumers' self-interest and demonstrate the value of Semantic Web technologies right away.
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